Structures

  • Trapezius
  • Sternocleidomastoid
  • Splenius capitis
  • Spinalis cervicis
  • Rectus capitis posterior major
  • Rectus capitis posterior minor
  • Rotatores cervicis (in this model rotatores thoracis and lumborum are included)
  • Semispinalis thoracis
  • Semispinalis cervicis
  • Semispinalis capitis
  • Longissimus capitis
MuscleActionOriginInsertionInnervationBlood supply
Trapezius- Upper fibres: Elevation of scapula and rotation of scapula during humerus abduction
- Middle fibres: Retract the scapula
- Lower fibres: Depress the scapula
- Bilateral action: extend of the neck
- Superior nuchal line
- External occipital protuberance
- Ligamentum nuchae
- Spinous processes of C7-T12
- Lateral 1/3 of clavicle
- Acromion
- Spine of scapula
- Motor: accessory nerve (XI)
- Proprioception: C3,4
- Transverse cervical artery
Sternocleidomastoid - Rotates head to opposite side
- Sternal fibres extend head
- Clavicular fibres flex head.
- Sternal head: Manubrium of sternum
- Clavicular head: Superomedial clavicle
- Mastoid process
- Superior nuchal line
- Accesory nerve (cranial nerve XI)
- Anterior rami C2-4
- Occipital artery
- Superior thyroid artery
- Posterior auricular artery
Splenius capitis- Together: Extend neck
- Individually: Lateral flexion of neck and rotate head to same side
- Lower half of ligamentum nuchae
- Spinous processes of C7-T4
- Mastoid process
- Inferior to lateral superior nuchal line
- Posterior rami C3-6- Occipital artery
Spinalis cervicis- Extension of vertebral column- Ligamentum nuchae
- Spinous process of C7
- Spinous process of C2 (axis)- Dorsal rami T4-L1- Posterior intercostal arteries
Rectus Capitis Posterior Major- Assists with neck extension and rotation
- Postural support of head
- Spinous process of axis- Lateral aspect of inferior nuchal line of occiput- Anterior rami of C1- Vertebral artery
- Occipital artery
Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor- Assists with neck extension and rotation
- Postural support of head
- Tubercle of posterior arch of atlas- Medial aspect of ingerior nuchal line of occiput- Anterior rami of C1- Vertebral artery
- Occipital artery
Rectus Capitis Posterior Major- Spinous process of axis- Lateral aspect of inferior nuchal line of occiput- Anterior rami of C1- Assists with neck extension and rotation
- Postural support of head
- Vertebral artery
- Occipital artery
Obliquus capitis superior- Extension of head
- Lateral flexion to same side
- Transverse process of atlas (C1)- Occipital bone between superior and inferior nuchal lines- Dorsal ramus of C1- Occipital artery
Rotatores cervicis- Weak extension of cervical spine
- Proprioception
- Articular processes of C1-7- Spinous processes of C1-7- Dorsal rami C3-8- Occipital artery
Semispinalis thoracis- Extends the neck
- Rotates head to opposite side
- Transverse processes of T6-10- Spinous processes of C5-T4- Dorsal rami T1-9- Posterior intercostal arteries
Semispinalis cervicis- Extends the neck
- Rotates head to opposite side
- Transverse processes of T1-5- Spinous processes of C2-C5- Dorsal rami C3-T5- Deep cervical artery
- Posterior intercostal arteries
Semispinalis capitis- Extends neck
- Rotates head to opposite side
- Transverse processes of C7-T6- Occiput- Dorsal rami C2-T6- Deep cervical artery
Longissimus capitis- Extends the neck
- Rotates head to same side
- Transverse processes of T1-5
- Articular processes C4-7
- Posterior edge of mastoid process-Dorsal rami of C6-T4- Occipital artery