Structures

  • Sternocleidomastoid
  • Splenius capitis
  • Splenius cervicis
  • Longissimus capitis
  • Semispinalis thoracis
  • Semispinalis cervicis
  • Semispinalis capitis
  • Rectus capitis posterior major
MuscleActionOriginInsertionInnervationBlood supply
Sternocleidomastoid - Rotates head to opposite side
- Sternal fibres extend head
- Clavicular fibres flex head.
- Sternal head: Manubrium of sternum
- Clavicular head: Superomedial clavicle
- Mastoid process
- Superior nuchal line
- Accesory nerve (cranial nerve XI)
- Anterior rami C2-4
- Occipital artery
- Superior thyroid artery
- Posterior auricular artery
Splenius capitis- Together: Extend neck
- Individually: Lateral flexion of neck and rotate head to same side
- Lower half of ligamentum nuchae
- Spinous processes of C7-T4
- Mastoid process
- Inferior to lateral superior nuchal line
- Posterior rami C3-6- Occipital artery
Splenius cervicis- Together: extend neck
- Individually- Rotate head to same side
- Spinous processes of TIII to TVI- Transverse processes of C1-3- Posterior rami lower cervical nerves- Muscular branches of occipital artery
Longissimus capitis- Extends the neck
- Rotates head to same side
- Transverse processes of T1-5
- Articular processes C4-7
- Posterior edge of mastoid process-Dorsal rami of C6-T4- Occipital artery
Semispinalis thoracis- Extends the neck
- Rotates head to opposite side
- Transverse processes of T6-10- Spinous processes of C5-T4- Dorsal rami T1-9- Posterior intercostal arteries
Semispinalis cervicis- Extends the neck
- Rotates head to opposite side
- Transverse processes of T1-5- Spinous processes of C2-C5- Dorsal rami C3-T5- Deep cervical artery
- Posterior intercostal arteries
Semispinalis capitis- Extends neck
- Rotates head to opposite side
- Transverse processes of C7-T6- Occiput- Dorsal rami C2-T6- Deep cervical artery
Rectus capitis posterior major- Extension of head
- Rotation of head to same side
- Spinous process of axis (C2)- Lateral occipital bone- Dorsal ramus of C1- Occipital artery
Obliquus capitis inferior- Rotation of face to same side- Spinous process of axis (C2)- Transverse process of atlas (C1)- Dorsal ramus of C1- Occipital artery