Structures

  • Gluteus maximus
  • Gluteus medius (anterior fibres laterally rotate)
  • Piriformis
  • Obturator externus
  • Obturator internus
  • Gamellus superior
  • Gamellus inferior
  • Quadratus femoris

MuscleActionOriginInsertionInnervationBlood supply
Gluteus maximus- Hip extension
- Hip lateral rotation
- Hip abduction (middle and upper fibres)
- posterior surface of ilium
- posterior superior illiac crest
- posterior surface of sacrum and coccyx
- Primarily to fascia lata at illiotibial tract
- upper posterior surface of femur
- Inferior gluteal nerve: L5, S1, S2- inferior and superior gluteal arteries
- First perforating branch of profunda femoral artery
Gluteus medius- Hip abduction
- Hip medial rotation (anterior fibres)
- Hip lateral rotation (posterior fibres)
- Dorsal ilium inferior to iliac crest- Lateral and superior surfaces of greater trochanter- Superior gluteal nerve: L4,L5,S1- Superior gluteal artery
Piriformis- Lateral rotation of hip
- Assists abduction of hip when hip is flexed
- Anterior portion of Lateral process of sacrum
- Gluteal surface of ilium at border of greater sciatic notch
- Superior border of greater trochanter- Piriformis nerve: L5,S1,S2- Superior and inferior Gluteal arteries
- Internal pudendal artery
Obturator externus
- Lateral rotation of hip
- Assists hip adduction
- Obturator membrane
- Anterior Obturator foramen
- Posteromedial surface of greater trochanter of femur- Obturator nerve: L2,3,4
- Vertical or hamstring portion innervated by tibial nerve: L2, L3, L4
- Obturator artery
- medial circumflex Femoral artery
Obturator Internis- Lateral rotation of hip
- Assists abduction of hip when hip is flexed
- Internal surface of obturator membrane
- posterior bony margins of obturator foramen
- Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur- Nerve to the obturator internus and superior gemellus; L5,S1 (branch of the sacral plexus)- Internal pudendal artery
-Superior and inferior Gluteal arteries
Gamellus superior- Lateral rotation of hip
- Assists abduction of hip when hip is flexed
- Ischial spine- Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur- Nerve to the obturator internus and superior gemellus; L5,S1 (branch of the sacral plexus)- inferior Gluteal artery
Gamellus inferior- Lateral rotation of hip
- Assists abduction of hip when hip is flexed
-posterior Ischial tuberosity
- Postero-Lateral obturator ring
- Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur- nerve to the obturator internus and inferior gemellus: L5,S1 (branch of the sacral plexus)- inferior Gluteal artery
Quadratus femoris- Lateral rotation of hip
- Assists adduction of hip
- Lateral margin of obturator ring (above Ischial tuberosity)- Quadrate tubercle
- Intertrochanteric crest of proximal posterior femur
- Quadratus femoris branch of nerve to the Quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus: L5, S1- Medial circumflex femoral artery
- Inferior gluteal artery
-1st - 4th perforating arteries
- obturator artery
- Superior muscular branches of popliteal artery